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Christiane MГјnster

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I participated in several teddy bear exhibitions in Russia and Ukraine and TEDDYBГ„R-TOTAL teddy bear show in MГјnster, Euro Teddy. Studien zur englischen Literatur, 13 (MГјnster: LIT Verlag, ). Distributed in the Sindel, Christiane: The Mystery Resides in Humanity Itself. - Christine R. Dreymüller hat diesen Pin entdeckt. and Ukraine and TEDDYBГ„R-TOTAL teddy bear show in MГјnster, Euro. and Ukraine and TEDDYBГ„R-TOTAL teddy bear show in MГјnster, Euro Teddy Christine StockmanTEDDYBEARS. amantadin christine kaufmann kosmetik kaufen ultra life lithium 9v medikament januvia blei gel akkus acetylsalicylsГ¤ure schГјrmann mГјnster[/url].

Christiane MГјnster

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Voskanian, S Pothula, S Woodford, S Buehler, J Wijeysundera, D Fujii, K Sharma, A Withdrawn S Yoshida, A Srivastava, S Mudumbai, S Hare, G Lotz, C Steppan, J Eng, R Wang, A Tischer-Zeitz, T Theisen, M Riess, M Abaz, M Theilmeier, G Larmann, J Assaad, S Bradford, W Yoshimura, T Komatsu, R Raphael, J Lessa, M.

Lurati Buse, G Farar, D Arya, V Raghunathan, K Yin, J Snyder, M Avagliano, E Patel, S Amhaz, H Attaallah, A Hatakeyama, N Kanai, R Kumar, M Fuchs, R Tokuda, K Kida, K Kosaka, Y Urner, M Herrmann, I Unauthorized Use Prohibited.

Mascia, M Rajaratnam, C Galiatsou, E Lehmann, C Hudcova, J Lundberg, J Targ, A Quraishi, T Agarwal, S Fukushima, Y Fujita, Y Panjwani, A Baker, K Yorozu, T Pisklakov, S Ng, V Stol, I Kariya, T Rebello, E Burkle, C Tsai, M Mitchell, J Lin, N Molloy, B Epstein, R Herasevich, V Morrison, A Jameson, L Kim, C Navedo, A Grande, B Levine, D Bernstein, W Dauber, B Jafari, A Saumande, B Anderson, J Barnet, C Boone, L Patel, H Wagner, R Matyal, R Muret-Wagstaff, S Lau, J Wanderer, J Bause, G Thackeray, E Montoya, R Chau, D Ali, M Al Rawahi, K.

Liaw, C. Peterfreund, R Kawakami, H Tampo, A El-Hadi, S Miyake, Y Kawanishi, S Rothfield, K Dimache, F Yamashita, K Dote, K Saththasivam, P Li, Z Zheng, X Okino, S Terada, T Sharpe, M Yeh, J-R Saito, J Emanuel, A Gebre-Amlak, K Marks, R Fortier, L.

Patteson, S Collins, B Liu, Y Uchida, M Tse, J. Mehta, T Nishiyama, T Kroin, J Kendale, S Murdoch, J Yang, J Shyam, V Krenk, L Rowan, C Shah, J Kosaka, J Goettel, N Cui, D Haile, M Tiwari, A Monteiro, J Naik, B Shilo, D Giffard, R.

Stiles, K Hua, F Terkawi, A Li, Q Takasusuki, T Du, J Boscariol, R Buvanendran, A Doi, K Tomar, G Sun, Y Zhao, H Candiotti, K Cierny, G Sadhasivam, S Gan, T.

Hattori, S Mamiya, K Durkin, B Fujii, S Fukuhara, A Maru, A Ludwig, E Bjerregaard, J Chrysostomou, C Hammer, G Zhu, R Diaz, L Levy, R Koo, E Bong, C Makaryus, R Johnson-Akeju, O Bajic, D Perouansky, M Goodchild, C Ma, H Piegeler, T Forman, S Sinner, B Dershwitz, P Ishizawa, Y Yuki, K Mishima, Y LaPierre, C Lengl, O Lin, J Yamaguchi, K Orser, B Murphy, K Zhang, X Wu, J Terasako, K Van Haelst, I.

Tanno, M Mirzakhani, H Amornyotin, S Iwasaki, H Jeleazcov, C Desjardins St-Jean, O Asimolowo, O Takahoko, K Kurosaki, H Morioka, N Meissner, K Soon Im, K Alrayashi, W Kolodzie, K Samhan, Y Al Mahrami, M Ogura, A Traiyawong, R De Oliveira, G Liu, J Manis, E Bae, J McClain, R Kaur, B Hsu, Y Wallace, A Sabouri1,2, C.

Heard1, P. Creighton1, A. Area Under The Curve 0. A standardized sedation regimen, including a total of 4 mg midazolam, mcg fentanyl followed by propofol titrated in 10 mg increments to effect was used.

All staff were blinded to the BIS index values. Results: Most patients were ASA class 1 or 2 Average age was Discussion: The BIS can be used to aid in sedation titration during dental procedures.

Airway obstruction and over-sedation is a very common complication during office deep sedation with propofol titration regimen.

Titrating the sedation to a BIS of about 65 may reduce the incidence of airway problems and as such may increase safety of office sedation by non- anesthesia practitioners.

The quality of block and complexity of cases are the confounding factors that limited usage of BIS monitor in this regard. References: 1.

Hannallah1, M. Rasmussen1, J. Carroll2, A. Charabaty2, C. Palese2, N. Haddad2 1 Neck circumference in cm. Total items Dexmedetomidine provides sedation with minimal respiratory depression.

Methods: With IRB approval 20 consented patients undergoing upper GI endoscopy alone or with ultrasound examination, Barrx procedure, or colonoscopy were enrolled in the study.

All patients were considered high probability of having OSA based on an adjusted neck circumference greater than 48 cm.

Propofol infusion was used to maintain anesthesia. BP, HR, and O2 saturation were recorded before, during, and after the procedure.

PACU phase 1 time was recorded. Propofol induction dose and phase 1 time were compared to data we acquired from a different but comparable IRB approved study using only propofol for anesthesia in patients without OSA.

Their BMI was Propofol induction dose was 0. In the propofol only study we used for comparison, the induction dose was 2. Two patients developed transient hypoxemic episodes during the procedure that were easily corrected with airway maneuvers.

Transient hypotension requiring vasopressor support was experienced by 3 patients during the procedure and 3 patients in PACU. Post-discharge, drowsiness was common, 2 patients reported dysphoric symptoms, and one patient complained of dry mouth.

The technique provides an alternative to ET intubation in these high risk patients. The prolonged induction and recovery times, however, may limit its routine use.

Anesth Analg ; 5 Anesth Analg ; 1 N Engl J Med ; 7 Rosenberg1, S. Gallagher2, J. Stenglein3, R. Urman3, P. Hess3, F.

We developed a safety checklist template for use in the office surgery setting to determine the feasibility of its implementation and its effect on key patient safety indicators.

Methods: Based on the W. O checklist, we developed a element, perioperative checklist template for use in the officebased surgical setting Figure 1.

With focus-group input from office personnel, including surgeons, anesthesiologists, and nurses, the checklist was customized to an office-based plastic surgery practice and IRB approval obtained.

We recorded baseline, pre-checklist rates for each checklist item as well as post-op adverse outcomes via a retrospective chart review of cases.

After an education program and day run-in period, a prospective, post-checklist implementation chart review was initiated and is ongoing.

Use of the checklist was associated with increases in the rates of a number of important safety indicators and recommended practices.

Further work will define the impact of the checklist on adverse outcomes and its applicability to a range of different types of office settings.

N Engl J Med. Semel ME et al. Health Aff Millwood. Figure 2. Figure 1. Silverberg1,2, V. Pothula2, A. Schiavone2, P. Muddasani2, A.

Madupu2, S. PONV occurs even among patients who receive standard antiemetic prophylaxis. Methods: One AP 40 mg or placebo tablet was randomly given to each study patient 30 minutes prior to surgery.

All patients received a standardized anesthetic including propofol, fentanyl, rocuronium,isoflurane, nitrous oxide, neostigmine, and glycopyrrolate.

No other antiemetics were used. All peri-op nausea or vomiting episodes were recorded. Using an point verbal rating score, patients rated their nausea at pre op, PACU admission, and at 2, 24, 48 hrs, and 2 weeks after surgery, as well as just before receiving any rescue ON for nausea.

Results: A total of patients,mean age The verbal rating scores for nausea were slightly higher in the placebo group, but the results did not achieve significance.

The two groups were similar demographically. No adverse event attributable to AP was observed. No patients who received AP vomited, so none received rescue medication.

Gan TJ. Rolapitant for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting. Anesthesia and Analgesia 2.

Habib, A. A comparison of aprepitant and dexamethasone versus the combination of ondansetron and dexamethasone for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing craniotomy.

Ootaki1, T. Stevens2, J. Vargo2, Y. Jing3, A. Shiba3, W. Diagnostic yield for EUS-FNA is affected by several factors, including endoscopist experience, type of needle, and use of an in-room cytopathologist.

We are unaware of any data comparing the impact of sedation technique on the diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA in the diagnosis of solid pancreatic mass.

Our objective was to determine the association between the sedation method employed and the diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA.

Methods: This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. However this is the first study that demonstrated that the sedation technique affected the diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA in the diagnosis of solid pancreatic lesions.

Among the 77 patients who had a failed initial EUS-FNA diagnosis under CS, twenty one patients needed surgical laparotomy and thirty nine patients could not obtain histological diagnosis.

Gombar1, N. Bajaj1, U. Patients were randomly allocated to one of the two groups of 50 each. Patients as well as the surgeons were unaware of the airway device used.

Insertion of orogastric tube was easier and less number of attempts were required with PLMA. There was a significant decline in the pulmonary compliance in group II which was more pronounced after pneumoperitoneum.

TableI After desufflation these parameters returned to near preinsufflation levels. There was no episode of arterial desaturation in either group.

Discussion: Our results indicate that in the PLMA group, the degree of changes in pulmonary mechanics caused by the pneumoperitoneum were significant however there was no incidence of arterial desaturation, or gastric regurgitation.

Hence PLMA is a satisfactory airway device for laparoscopic cholecystectomy under GA, but further studies are required reagarding its safety in patients with decreased pulmonary compliance like morbid obesity or COPD.

Can J Anaesth ; 2. Bryan1, T. Taylor1, J. May1, L. Hoke1, M. Laxton1, A. A high incidence of airway-related problems has been found when measuring patient-centered PC outcomes of intubation, ventilation, and oxygenation IVO 3.

We measured the airway outcomes of IVO in MO patients undergoing bariatric surgery using a standardized airway and anesthetic technique.

Methods: After IRB approval and informed consent, patients were recruited. CGT stands alone as a separate method not as a competitive method in conflict and controversy with all the QDA qualitative data analysis methods jargonized as a type of GT.

This reader provides a myriad of CGT properties to consider in choosing it as the method to use. There will be no competitive arguments with other methods offered here.

It is designed to have CGT chosen on its merits for the user, not better or worse. It can be pre-ordered by going to.

Grounded Theory Review is now an open access journal! Are you undertaking a classic grounded theory study, but have no one to mentor you?

She can connect you with a Grounded Theory Institute Fellow who can offer you tailored support. This anthology brings together a collection of articles on classic grounded theory organized around the concept of mentoring the method.

With 19 contributors, most of whom have studied with Barney Glaser; the book is a wonderful tribute to both the man and the method.

It does a great job of explaining the roots of GT exploring the life, philosophies and influences on Barney Glaser , correcting some misunderstanding about the method, and looking at advances in the method.

It is useful to both the novice and the experienced researcher. He talks about the literature review, grounded theory as a jargon, high impact variables, conceptualization, and more.

FloraFaunaAltoAdige www. Il portale fornisce i dati sulla distribuzione dei gruppi di piante o animali selezionati e le schede informative sulle singole specie.

FloraFaunaAltoAdige si rivolge a tutte le persone che si occupano di flora e fauna dell'Alto Adige, in egual misura sia a specialisti che persone interessate.

Fin dalla sua fondazione nel , il Museo di Scienze Naturali dell'Alto Adige si pone come il centro di documentazione di riferimento per la flora e la fauna della regione.

Il portale vuole spronare la collaborazione nella rilevazione dei dati e rafforzare la comunicazione tra i conservatori del museo, in quanto gestori del portale, e gli esperti esterni, ma anche con le persone comuni che sono semplicemente interessate all'argomento.

Per richieste di contatto, domande e proposte su FloraFaunaAltoAdige scrivere a: florafauna naturmuseum.

L'utilizzo di FloraFaunaAltoAdige prevede che si accettino le condizioni elencate di seguito:. Per i dati estratti in generale e gli output mappe ed elenco delle specie : FloraFaunaAltoAdige.

Il portale sulla distribuzione delle specie animali e vegetali in Alto Adige. Per il progetto: Wilhalm T. Kranebitter P.

Gredleriana Per i lavori scientifici devono essere citate le pubblicazioni elettroniche sui diversi gruppi di organismi. Per la ricerca di singole specie animali e vegetali sono disponibili due diverse funzioni.

Dato che tutte le specie di un genere segnalate in Alto Adige vengono elencate, FloraFaunaAltoAdige assolve anche alla funzione di catalogo delle specie checklist.

La mappa di localizzazione, invece, indica i luoghi dell'avvistamento di una specie se si dispone delle coordinate il punto esatto o uno dei luoghi di riferimento nelle vicinanze.

FloraFaunaAltoAdige utilizza tre indicazioni di stato vedi il simbolo relativo , che nella flora e fauna talvolta sono utilizzati diversamente:.

La maggioranza dei dati proviene comunque dalla cartografia floristica in corso. La definizione tassonomia delle specie rappresentate si basa essenzialmente su Fischer M.

Adler W. La nomenclatura segue Wilhalm et al. Niklfeld H. Aellen P. In: Hegi G. Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa, 2.

Albers F. Haussknechtia, 7: Argenti C. Lasen C. Rovereto, Sez. Arietti N. Dalla scoperta alla ricostruzione dell'areale. Natura Bresciana, Bachmann S.

Becherer A. Bauhinia, 5 3 : Bauhinia, 5 4 : Bojko H. Eine neue Sippe aus den Dolomiten. Bolzon P. Nota IV. Nuovo Giorn. Nota VIII.

Nota X. Bona E. Museo Civico Rovereto. Bosin B. Der Schlern, Bottega S. Boraginaceae in Italia. Revisione biosistematica.

Webbia, Braun-Blanquet J. Von der Provence bis zur Steiermark. Fischer, Stuttgart. Dalla Torre K. Innsbruck, Damboldt J. Desfayes M.

Dunkel F. Gredleriana, 5 : Favarger C. Festi F. Studi Trentini Scienze Naturali, Atti Acc. Agiati, Fill J. Florineth F. Gottschlich G.

Gregor T. Rollik J. Greimler J. Hermanowski B. Guiggi A. Lobivia silvestrii Riv. Rowley Cactaceae nell'Italia settentrionale: aspetti tassonomici, biologici e corologici.

Atti Soc. Museo civ. Milano, Hand R. Hessen, Beiheft 9. Handel-Mazzetti H. Regni Veget. C, Schlern-Schriften, Wien, Hauser M. Hellrigl K.

Hellweger M. Studi Trentini, 8: Heubl G. Heydebrand E. Hilpold A. In: Hilpold A. Gredleriana, 5: Hintner C. Forstwirtschaft, Bozen.

Phyton Austria , Horn K. Sackwitz P. Feddes Repertorium, Rundbriefe, Jang C. Linnean Soc. Kalela A. Kiem J. Tageszeitung Dolomiten vom Tageszeitung Dolomiten vom 7.

Kierdorf-Traut G. Kunz H. Phyton Austria , 2: Leonhardt R. Zeitschrift, Lippert W. Lorenz K. Wuppertal, Luzzatto G.

Milano, 67 1 : Machule M. Der Schlern, , , , , ; , , , , ; , , , Melzer A. Manuskript Biolog. Labor, Leifers. Melzer H.

Carinthia II, Milde J. Steiermark, Floristische Arbeitsgemeinschaft, Gredleriana, 2: Pagitz K. Verein Innsbruck, Gredleriana, Pedrotti F.

Studi Trentini di scienze Naturali — Acta Biologica, Studi Trentini Sc. Agiati, 6: Perazza G. Rovereto, 10 : Pignatti S.

Il gruppo di Ranunculus auricomus L. Pils G. Linzer biol. Sagorski E. Schippmann U. Boissiera, Schroeder F. Senoner S.

Diplomarbeit Univ. Soest J. Soldano A. Oenothera, in Italia Onagraceae. Brescia, Spitaler R. Szelag Z. Teppner H.

Phyton Horn, Austria , Gredleriana, 9: Wien, B, Wallossek C. Weimarck G. Notiser, Wetschnig W. Widder F. Wilhalm T. Floristische Rundbriefe, 32 1 : Gredleriana, 1: In: Haller R.

In: Kranebitter P. Gredleriana, 6: Gredleriana, 7: In: Wilhalm T. Beck R. Stockner W. Schwienbacher E. Gredleriana, 2 : Gredleriana, 3: Tratter W.

Wirth H. Gredleriana, 8: Zemmer F. Gredleriana, 4 : Zhang L. Zidorn C. Zippel E. Zuccarini J. Flora, La maggior parte dei dati si basa su recenti rilevamenti sul campo.

In: Hellrigl K. Attualmente sono soprattutto Simone Ballini, Florian Stauder, Karl-Heinz Steinberger e Vito Zingerle che nell'ambito di diversi progetti e rilevazioni private partecipano attivamente allo studio della fauna di aracnidi dell'Alto Adige.

La tassonomia e la nomenclatura delle specie trattate seguono il catalogo online di Platnick N.

Per i nomi tedeschi delle specie si fa riferimento a Bellmann H. Ausserer A. Ballini S. Stauder F.

In: Schatz H. Haller R. It is a society of medical doctors and physicists that aims to promote the study and dissemination of scientific knowledge directly or indirectly related to radiology.

The Society has 9 sections dedicated to the different subspecialties within radiology. Every year, a major symposium is organised by the president of the Society, while several smaller meetings are organised by the sections.

A bi-monthly, peer-reviewed journal, The Belgian Journal of Radiology, is distributed among the members.

Membership Corresponding membership: open to radiologists and training radiologists who have graduated from a Belgian University and have applied for membership to the Board of Directors.

Application should be supported by 2 full members of the Society. Full membership: open to radiologists and training radiologists who are corresponding members and who have performed and presented a scientific work with success.

Associate membership: open to non-radiologists interested in the activities of the Society. Associate members have no voting rights.

For more information on the RBRS: www. All data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned.

Therefore the Editorial Board, Editors and Contributing Writers and their respective employees accept no liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion or statement.

Advertising rates valid as per January With its remote control and memory function, the system can be moved quickly and precisely into the desired applications.

Orthopedic studies are performed with greater speed and precision than ever before. You have to determine when operating on a patient will not work because a cure is not possible or the patient to five years of prospective controlled trials using standardised protocols to get this information.

The technique is being applied clinically in about 60 academic medical centres throughout Europe, estimates Dr.

Christoph Stippich from the University of Heidelberg, Germany. The procedure has not yet become a standard diagnostic routine, however.

It is not widely used in smaller community hospitals, and because there are no medically approved software tools for the procedure, fMRI is performed largely in the framework of scientific trials.

A role for fMRI nevertheless is emerging to fill a void in the assessment of patients destined for brain surgery. Although electroencephalography EEG and magnetoencephalography MEG do measure somatosensory or language function, the examinations are not easy to complete in a clinical setting, and data modelling is complicated, he said.

Only a few MEG centres exist worldwide, and they tend to be research centres that are not bound to hospitals. The fMRI technique, meanwhile, is highly robust and simple to perform.

As a result, fMRI is becoming the primary modality for investigating brain function, he added. Provided by Dr. All members and Fellows of the College are registered medical or dental practitioners.

The LMS enables the trainee radiologist to track his or her progress, which can also be monitored by the supervising trainer, and allows learning to be conducted at the pace of the learner or indeed enable the trainer to direct the trainee to specific topics or areas of study.

The College published its first Forward Plan in the summer of R-ITI complements, rather than replaces, the crucial learning in the clinical workplace.

The e-learning sessions effectively underpin the knowledge that trainees need to prepare for clinical practice and to reach the standards for entry into specialty practice.

R-ITI is now available to all UK training schemes, thus offering a consistent and comprehensive set of learning materials across the whole of radiology training in the UK.

Considerable interest has been expressed in using the programme outside the UK and discussions are in hand with other countries to support their training programmes.

Stippich Stippich believes, in fact, that there is no other option for visualising somatosensory and language functions.

Although anatomical landmarks can help to identify the gyri in the brain that govern motor function, morphological imaging is difficult because there are only a few reliable landmarks.

Functional imaging therefore is a valuable adjunct. All this information you can assess very precisely using functional imaging. One of the clinical indications for fMRI is to help clinicians select the safest treatment approach for removing a brain tumour.

It will take another three Another possible indication is to determine the extent of surgery.

Technique, protocols and stimulation equipment S. Clinical applications of fMR imaging for intracranial tumors and epilepsy C.

By measuring acute alterations in the segregation of neuronal functions and connectivity within the brain, fMRI is being used experimentally to assess brain function associated with a focal brain lesion, the process of reconnecting parallel neural processing networks during recovery, and the reorganisation of motor and language networks following rehabilitation.

In his ECR presentation, Bizzi will concentrate in particular on how fMRI shows reorganisation in specific anatomic networks, such as sensorimotor and language and spatial awareness, in patients who have had acute changes in brain structure and function as a result of a stroke and in those who have waxing and waning changes in plasticity because of multiple sclerosis.

The equipment only adapts all the premium functions of existing equipment, e. Goos-Suprema, DE 5 Dr. Expo A Ext. Oedema-like bone marrow patterns generally are reflected by ill-defined increased signal changes on fluid-sensitive sequences such as short tau inversion recovery STIR or fat-suppressed T2-weighted sequences.

When part of the spectrum of the abnormalities is associated with a suspected disease in the vertebrae, bone mineral density changes should be classified by their distribution, shape, and relationship to other local or distant abnormalities, said Prof.

The presence of BMO changes may not even be clinically relevant. Signs of bone marrow oedema are often adjacent to obvious degenerative disc disease.

However, even incidental findings of BMO should drive further investigation if they suggest underlying infection, inflammation, or a fracture.

For example, BMO associated with a degenerative disc will have a band- like appearance next to the endplate and occur predominantly near the anterior corners of the vertebrae on both sides of the disc space.

On the other hand, BMO related to traumatic or osteoporotic vertebral factures will be linked with vertebral contour deformities and a normal marrow signal distant from the compressed endplate.

In infection, the BMO pattern will be present on both aspects of the disc space and in combination with interruption of the vertebral endplate, loss of height or an abnormal signal from the disc, as well as nearby paraspinal or epidural soft tissue alterations.

Distinguishing between necrosis, fracture, and oedema is especially difficult, Zanetti said.

In one case, a year-old woman with a painful hip had BMO-like changes in the femoral head and neck on coronal T1-weighted images on the left side and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images on the right side.

The images could be classified by radiologists as signs of the initial phase of femoral head necrosis based on the circumscribed low signal intensity on the T1-weighted image or as insufficiency fracture based on a subchondral linear abnormality in the femoral head.

BMO patterns typically are investigated with fluid-sensitive MRI techniques, as well as additional T1weighted sequences to look for linear signal abnormalities that indicate the presence of an initial stress fracture, he explained.

Although MRI is the procedure of choice for diagnosing the cause of BMO, other imaging modalities are sometimes useful. When the differential diagnosis of degenerative disc disease and infectious spondylodiscitis is difficult to make on MRI, xrays and CT may reveal erosive and osteosclerotic changes that are typical for inflammatory disease in the thoracolumbar junction and in the sacroiliac joints.

These images demonstrate an osteoid osteoma. It is visible on CT with a characteristic nidus arrowhead , while on the MR examination only an uncharacteristic bone marrow oedema pattern is visible arrow.

Additional bone scintigraphy may be also used when osteoid osteoma is suspected or when a multilocalised condition e. Zanetti The MRI examination may be adapted to increase its sensitivity by incorporating gradient echo sequences or by injecting contrast material, which can reveal necrotic areas within the disc or soft tissue infection, detect subtle tumour foci in disseminated metastatic disease, Sagittal T1-weighted a and T2-weighted b images reveal bone marrow oedema located at anterior vertebral angles, adjacent to the TT12 disk space, highly suspect for inflammatory disease arrows.

Oblique coronal T1-weighted c and T2-weighted d images show evident bone marrow oedema adjacent to both sacro-iliac joints, making the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis certain arrowheads.

Coronal T1-weighted b of the pelvis shows evident additional foci, which confi rms multifocal metastatic disease arrowheads. By Anagha P.

The forum, which was established in , is alive and kicking! We survived a total makeover last year and are ready to meet new challenges in the recently created European Society of Radiology ESR.

Currently 36 countries are represented in the RTF. The Invest in Youth programme, sponsored so generously by the congress, has brought more than trainees to Vienna.

How are you enjoying it so far? The first day busy and overwhelming? Too many interesting sessions to choose from?

We know the feeling, which is exactly why you should visit the RTF booth in the entrance hall for more information about our events and to meet other trainees!

These are two lectures arranged especially for trainees. Well, our excellent lecturers Dr. Hany and Prof. Dixon have promised to answer all your questions later today.

The lecture session will be followed by cocktails for trainees, in downtown Vienna. It is the perfect opportunity to enjoy drinks and food with trainees from all across Europe.

RTF activities from the past year will be presented and new projects launched. This year is especially exciting, as elections to a new RTF executive board are on the agenda.

It is always very entertaining as well as educational. The Radiology Trainees Forum is extremely pleased to see you here in Vienna.

Please do come by our booth in the entrance hall. Registration required. Please visit the RTF booth for information on location and to pick up your tickets.

The ESPR is proud to announce the launch of its brand new website www. On this site, you will find details of all of our forthcoming meetings and courses, as well as important links to our sister societies.

Also on the ESPR website, you can find a forum for discussion and details of various working groups organised under the auspices of the Society.

If you have an interest in paediatric radiology, we urge you to join us and to become an active member of our Society. The meeting will be organised by Dr.

At this ECR you will find high quality courses and scientific presentations devoted specifically to paediatric radiology.

We wish you a fruitful meeting and a very productive and happy ! F Avni, General Secretary C. If we can help you to do so in your country, please do not hesitate to contact us.

The meeting is being organised by Dr. Goya Enriquez and her colleagues. Experts suggest that in general CT or MRI should be used first only when either the lesion originates in the suprahyoid neck or the upper aerodigestive tract.

If the patient has a deep neck infection, should it be treated by intravenous antibiotics or should it be drained?

Some retropharyngeal abscesses in deep spaces can be drained or removed with a transnasal endoscopic technique due to the accuracy of MR or CT in depicting location and disease extent.

The advantages of the endoscopic technique include reduced risk of morbidity compared to external surgical approach, absence of cervical or palatal scars, and a short hospitalisation time.

Since , diffusion-weighted MRI has been able to discriminate between cellulitis and abscess at an earlier stage than was possible with a standard CT or MRI examination for earlier diagnosis and treatment.

For this, the most complete imaging for maximum diagnosis needs to be performed as soon as possible. In Geneva, a contrast-enhanced wholebody CT scan is usually carried out, but this is only possible with very rapid multidetector CT units.

If the patient has sustained a specific soft-tissue injury, such as to the nerves of the brachial plexus, new MR techniques to visualise haematoma or fractures leading to nerve root compression would be used immediately, along with 3D acquisitions and 3D contrastenhanced MR to follow nerve roots.

Fibre tracking to see nerve fibres in the brachial plexus is a novel technique that is starting to be used to plan surgery and minimise functional impairment by surgery.

Five years ago, surgeons would have treated the initial lesion or trauma, and functional impairment would have been rectified later.

Now surgeons aim to prevent complications, necessitating additional treatment later. Are there fragments?

Is there compression of the optic nerve? Is there displacement or incarceration of extrinsic muscles? Is there involvement of the apex of the orbit?

In a fracture of the mandible, is there associated involvement of tooth roots? As the relationship between the radiologist and clinician evolves, imaging advances and improvements in surgical procedures seem to act as catalysts, spurring the other forward to more precise diagnosis and minimally invasive techniques, such as mini-surgery for fractures and more endoscopic surgery to treat face and neck lesions.

Surgeons taking into account aesthetics, as well as function, routinely use 3D reconstructions of displaced face fractures to plan surgery to minimise scars.

A B Well delineated parapharyngeal ectopic pleomorphic adenoma, obliterating the parapharyngeal fat pad, shift ing the styloid process backwards and the pharyngeal air column to the contralateral side.

Robinson Coronal CT shows unilateral atrophy of the mastication muscles, an indirect sign of a lesion in the unilateral mandibular nerve cranial nerve V3.

Robinson Contrast-enhanced axial MR T1-weighted examination shows diff usely infi ltrating neurofibroma in carotid sheath, pushing the vessel anteriorly and the parotid gland laterally.

Robinson Radiological Society of Iceland Ever since its foundation, the main undertaking of the Radiological Society of Iceland has been organising continuing medical education meetings for radiologists in Iceland.

These meetings are to be held at least twice a year, according to the statutes of our society. On these occasions, we invite domestic or international speakers to cover a selection of interesting subjects within the field of radiology.

Icelandic radiologists are also very efficient in attending international courses on both sides of the Atlantic, the result being a high standard of knowledge and knowhow in our profession.

Collaboration with other radiological societies is another very important undertaking of our society. The liaison of our society with the Radiological Societies of Denmark, Norway, Finland and Sweden is very well established and has existed for many years.

In Iceland there is no domestic radiological specialty training programme available, basically due to the small population of the country.

As a result, Icelandic radiologists undertake their radiological specialty training in hospitals in both the United States and Europe the majority in Sweden.

This has created an interesting mixture of knowledge and know-how in radiology in Iceland, to the benefit of both the profession and patients.

The main aim of our society is to maintain and increase the current high standard of radiological practice in the country.

It is our belief that only by doing so, can radiology hold on to its current position with respect to other specialties.

RC Practical head and neck imaging and reporting Moderator: B. How to diagnose and report on inflammatory lesions in the head and neck R.

How to diagnose and report on traumatic lesions in the head and neck M. How to diagnose and report on tumoral lesions in the head and neck S.

Iceland is not a member of the European Union but has been a member of the European Economic Area since The Radiological Society of Iceland is a full member of ESR and we consider this link with Europe and the Nordic Countries to be very important indeed and of growing importance in the future.

This presentation will show how managers can make best use of IT investments by following the business intelligence process.

In combination, they reduce the scope of investments, although these are necessary to cut costs and increase revenues.

In many hospitals expenses exceed revenues because treatment costs are far too high due to a lack of modern equipment and processes.

There is a clear trend: On a long-term basis, the government will only provide the political framework in which an increasingly market-oriented hospital system will develop.

The hospital that survives is the thereby should be to define and verbalise the existing business strategy and to attach the right objectives and Key Performance Indicators KPIs to it.

Through data mining of existent IT systems, followed by a data validation procedure, management can gain a much better transparency of their actual business processes, such as handling of scheduling, waiting times, billing etc.

The speech will demonstrate how continuous Business Intelligence has helped Imelda Hospital, in Bonheiden, Belgium, to keep its yearly productivity increase high, along with patient and staff satisfaction.

This will be complemented with a comparison of operational data in another hospital in a different country and with a different scale.

The aim of this comparison is to show how hospitals can differ substantially when it comes to processes and business ramifications.

It is of minor importance whether the hospital is public or private, or a charity organisation. Privately-owned hospitals give an impressive example of how this should work - their investments are profitoriented, free from governmental and political regulations, and meet with remarkable success.

They often use leasing as an external financing source for their investments. To keep up competitively, sufficient financing for necessary investments will be a fundamental requirement for future hospitals.

In this field, leasing is advantageous compared with a loan, because the VAT in leasing is only applied on the effective wear and tear.

Two major trends are obvious: Hospital financing will change fundamentally, shifting from public subsidy financing to classic credit financing.

In the future hospital, the decision of whether to invest, or not, will have to be calculated by its professional managers, following fundamental and objective cost-advantage evaluations.

In all aspects of business economics, including the costs of interest and amortisation, whenever a result is positive, investment should be seriously considered.

All professionals in a hospital must participate in that decision-making process. By understanding the real situation better, managers can make intelligent decisions to close those gaps.

A graduate of Leuven University and specialist in vascular imaging, from until last year, consultant radiologist Jan Schillebeeckx was the Chairman of the Imelda Hospital in Bonheiden, Belgium.

In addition, from , he also served as Chairman of the Belgian Professional Society of Radiology.

An advanced financing strategy will enable hospitals to shift from traditional institutions that present treatments to patients, to modern companies that meet the demands of their customers.

Sabine Eidmann points out that Comprendium Leasing, which has a track record of 25 years in Germany for individual leasing offers, belongs neither to a bank nor a manufacturer.

Observation reveals a few dominant trends in this process. Despite the involvement of some major multinational companies, the majority of the market share is in the possession of companies based on local Polish capital.

Large or small, these companies represent two different philosophies in terms of operation: one being limitation of costs to maximise profit, the other being uncompromising quality, even at some cost of profit margin.

By Peter Fletcher, Birmingham, UK there is some balance between the two attitudes, but this is in a minority of cases.

In some cases, with such successful results that even medical universities decide not to purchase their own equipment, but to outsource diagnostic imaging altogether.

Refunds for services from the National Health Fund remain a burning issue. At the moment, the NHF is refunding the costs of exams of hospitalised patients and co-funded exams, where primary health care facilities are sharing the cost of the exams for outpatients.

In the past, the role of diagnostic imaging in the efficiency of the medical process has been underestimated.

In some cases to such an extent that some diagnostic exams were not refunded unless referral was after admission to a hospital.

This was far from efficient. Nowadays, the awareness of the importance of diagnostic imaging is growing, which is reflected by the growing number of screening studies sponsored by the local authorities.

Of course there raising. Generous individuals gave large and small amounts in support of their local hospital and its mission in their community.

Around the globe there is an increasing interest in the amount of involvement that philanthropic donations can have on the bottom line funding of healthcare.

Healthy fundraising efforts can prompt great corporations as well as rich and poor people to give money for hospital needs.

In the United Kingdom the healthcare sector is one of the fastest growing areas for fundraisers and a significant number of healthcare facilities are employing full time fundraisers.

In a world where the cost of technology is often outstripping the capacity of finance managers to pay the bills, hospitals are looking at their communities to support this vital community service.

Globally, most hospitals receive donations from grateful patients and relatives; as a thank you or a memory. Healthcare fundraising is nothing new.

One is the inadequate number of procedures, limited by contract, leading to long waiting lists. Another important issue remains the case of procedures performed over the contract.

Private and public diagnostic entities are required to stay within the limits of the contract, but on the other hand they are obliged to perform every procedure where the circumstances are life threatening.

Obviously, this can result in the number of exams being exceeded, leading to vigorous disputes with the NHF, sometimes ending in court.

Fortunately, these are not the only sources of finance for diagnostic procedures. Also worth mentioning, is the ever expanding involvement of private diagnostic centres in the growing number of pharmaceutical trials.

What about the outlook for the future? It is extremely optimistic. The most important person in this exchange is not the doctor; it is not the finance manager, or even the CEO or the fundraiser, it is the potential supporter who has the ability to make a gift.

Working in a hospital environment is to work in a place of miracles where every day people are in some form getting their lives back and are grateful to the medics, allied health professionals, healthcare scientists, administration and also the porters and ancillary staff.

Fundraisers are not so much raising funds for an organisation but involved in creating a change of culture, so that an organisation can articulate its needs to a public who are receptive to being asked for support.

At the moment, the number of such beneficiaries is already quite substantial. Also, the growing awareness of the importance of early diagnosis as a result of timely performed diagnostic procedure, even at the lowest levels of local authorities, is highly beneficial.

We can look to the future with confidence and expect a steadily growing market share of private companies in the diagnostic imaging business.

He is also a frequent speaker at fundraising conferences, training courses and workshops. List of sponsors: myESR.

Thus, ECR is glad and proud that Prof. Vogel again presents his fascinating findings and his very particular view of imaging techniques.

X-Rays Serving Security. Travel, transport and terrorism have become part of our daily lives and elements of globalisation.

X-rays make hand luggage, parcels and containers transparent. Everybody knows that the airport examines these items and that dangerous objects hidden inside them will become visible.

X-ray technology is employed to impede terrorist attacks by searching for weapons and explosives.

X-ray technology allows for the identification of items which have induced suspicion, without opening cases, baskets and containers.

It also shows the location and permits identification of objects hidden about the person, without the need for personal searches.

Firearms can be recognised by their form, size and absorption of x-rays, while explosives and drugs are identified by dual energy imaging and xray spectroscopy.

Even people can be found, hiding within the contents of a truck. The exhibition shows how x-ray technology can perform today and what the results are.

Conventional fluoroscopy with transmission images, backscatter technique, dual energy technology, computed tomography and spectroscopy are all used.

Images of the whole body, produced by a scan with a pencil or fan beam, show the body and its contents.

Backscatter technology produces images of the body without clothing that are similar to photographs. One can foresee that in the near future the different methods will be employed in combination, not only successively, but also simultaneously.

It becomes clear that x-ray technol- Travel, Transport, Terrorism. An exhibition by Prof. Please pick up a leaflet on the Kodak booth or as you enter the Symposium.

Georg Hospital in Hamburg. During a stay as visiting professor in Monterrey, Mexico, he noticed that violence in South America somewhat differs from violence as experienced in Central Europe.

A request for images from amnesty international launched his first exhibition. Today there are four exhibits available, with legends in German, English, French, Polish and Arabic, which have been shown more than 50 times throughout the world.

The new exhibition, which is shown for the first time at ECR , features again more than 20 posters with partly provocative images that illustrate the increasing role of imaging techniques in terror prevention and combat.

It is presented on the first level of the congress venue. What defines progress in the www.

Tito Livraghi ranks among the better known European radiologists due to his outstanding achievements in percutaneous ablation therapies.

And he is an acknowledged expert on cemeteries! It connotes the place where those whohad died were believed to be congregated, a comfortless place beneath the earth, beyond gates, where both the bad and the good, slave and king, pious and wicked must go after death to sleep in silence and oblivion in the dust.

Thus, it is the perfect title for a marvellous book conveying the beauty and peacefulness of cemeteries around the world.

Currently Dr. Livraghi is preparing a book concerning the historical sites of Milan and a catalogue on the wine routes. Tito Livraghi from Milan, Italy on one of his innumerable trips.

ECR Today: When did you start to develop your interest in graveyards? Tito Livraghi was born in Milan in He worked as an assistant at the National Cancer Institute of Milan and was head of the radiology department at the Civil Hospital of Vimercate Milan , where he is currently a consultant.

He has published one hundred articles on interventional radiology. In , in Radiology, he first reported a new procedure for treating hepatic cancer, using percutaneous ethanol injection PEI under ultrasound guidance.

Starting from this study, more than 3, other articles on ablation therapies were published.

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On this page is a selection of his work. You can enjoy more photos from Harry in the next two editions of the daily newspaper.

Robert Steiner from London and Prof. Honorary Memberships were bestowed upon Prof. Kaori Togashi from Kyoto and Dr. Robert Hattery from Tucson.

Thousands of attendees signed up for membership of the European Society of Radiology on the opening day of the congress.

ESR will represent the views of radiology in the European Union and raise public awareness of radiology. Visit myESR. Herold hands over the award to B.

Baldus, Prof. Head for Room R3 at 8. He explained how the U. Th is representative from the Korean Radiological Society certainly got into the swing of things on the opening day of the congress.

We have written the next chapter of an unparalleled success story in computed tomography. Be there when we turn the page for the first time at the ECR in Vienna.

Last year it was not so easy to e-mail material, which I found frustrating, but this seems to have been worked out.

The sheer volume of multimedia content and the speed at which delegates can dip in and out of posters make for an interactive and stimulating break from the routine hike between sessions.

Jankees Vette, general radiologist at the Meander Medical Centre in Amersfoort, the Netherlands, appreciates the chance to communicate with the editor of the poster, without either of them needing to meet face-to-face.

It is located in Expo D on the lower level. Quarter-Finals: AC Milan vs. Liverpool AS Roma vs. Manchester United Chelsea vs.

The Six Nations rugby championship resumes this weekend with three intriguing fixtures. Albert Baert from European Radiology, Dr.

Anthony Proto from Radiology, and Dr. Robert Stanley from the American Journal of Radiology will address topics such as plagiarism, the impact of the internet, and duplicate publication.

The largest portion of the session will be devoted to an interactive discussion with the audience. Critical questions will be answered, advice will be given, and common problems will be addressed.

The EPOS area attracted hundreds of delegates during the fi rst day of the congress. Champagne Late-Night Shopping Tour! To get there take U1 to Stephansplatz.

The quality of the lectures was exceptionally high, and the scientific programme was praised by the participants for providing new and interesting insights into the topic of breast imaging, which is currently gaining more and more importance within the radiological world.

After having such a big success with the launch of the first School of Breast Imaging in Budapest in November , the highly accepted programme received invitations to be extended in to several cities throughout Europe and worldwide.

This is why EUSOBI aims to continue to unify radiological education on breast imaging in Europe as well as to support and deliver education to developing countries in Europe and worldwide.

Three to four courses are therefore planned for Parkinson's disease patients. Poor vascularity in patients with diabetes.

Women who need bilateral breast scanning in a single visit. Jittery kids. Once they were considered hard to scan patients.

Now they're simply patients. With high definition imaging and motion correction technology you can view all your patients exactly how you want.

The same. MR Re-imagined. So little wonder that MR vendors at the ECR technical exhibition will be demonstrating approaches to speeding up data acquisition and accelerating workflow.

Siemens Medical Solutions will be presenting technology that the company insists will fundamentally change MRI, similar to the effect that spiral scanning had on CT.

Unlike conventional MRI systems, the table in the new unit is not fixed during image acquisition. Instead it moves continuously, just as in a CT examination.

Any similar MR procedure, where different body regions are imaged, generally requires individual sections to be combined through data processing.

Multiple scans are not only time consuming and inconvenient for the patient, but they may also produce less accurate results. Image quality is also improved because the body region being scanned is always in the centre of the magnet where the best measurements are obtained.

GE similarly maintains that this new technology offers fast scanning with enhanced image quality and significant clinical benefits. The dynamics of the gadolinium contrast XV that provides a complementary tool for distinguishing between malign and benign lesions.

The potential value of MRI in screening for breast cancer has long been controversial. Some healthcare providers may be concerned at the higher costs of this modality in comparison with traditional radiography and there is no con- Inside Today compact and easy to use as a 1.

Toshiba is displaying the Atlas 1. VIBRANT-XV provides the capability for obtaining high-resolution images quickly, providing both superb anatomical detail and critical kinetic information.

Breast MRI is most frequently used to evaluate patients with a known abnormality at the moment. Vagliani believes it should also be considered as a screening method for those considered at risk.

We have had many examples of pathologies that were detected by MRI and missed by radiography.

It also features SmartExam, allowing newer users to get expert results with one-click planning, scanning, and processing.

The higher signal-to-noise ratio achievable with the latest 3T hardware also helps identify lesions that would be less well seen on lower field-strength scanners.

The new Achieva 3T X-series system combines advances to magnet, gradient, and radiofrequency technology to produce enhanced performance and a larger field-of-view.

The redesign also addresses one of the main causes of patient discomfort during MRI, that is, acoustic noise. The technical exhibition opens today from to , and at the same time on Sunday and Monday.

Philips notes that its Achieva 1. Toshiba Medical Systems has meanwhile revealed a complete redesign of its Vantage Atlas 1.

The company states that its new element system will help meet clinical demand for an MR unit that delivers high-resolution, whole-body images with faster imaging times, facilitating quick and accurate diagnoses.

The new technology is based on an integrated coil concept that will allow clinicians to perform multiple examinations without repositioning the patient.

Continuous Table Move allows physicians to acquire one complete planning scan, or peripheral angiography, in a single, continuous move.

Eliminating the need for batteries also helps improve productivity with reduced maintenance.

Its ergonomic design with a fully adjustable control panel, central locking and flexible integration of peripherals minimises operator fatigue.

Radiologists dealing with these requests will need a thorough knowledge of normal and unexpected CT findings in the mandible and maxilla.

By Paula Gould Panoramic and intra-oral x-rays have become central to dentomaxillofacial work, highlighting the causes of pain, revealing the effects of trauma, and providing valuable information for surgical planning.

But dental radiology is not just about taking x-rays any more. Cross-sectional imaging technologies are helping provide a better view of complex dental anatomy, pathologies, and injuries.

One technique attracting particular interest is cone-beam CT. This modality, as the name suggests, uses a cone-shaped x-ray beam rather than a collimated fan beam.

Cone-beam CT systems are smaller and cheaper than conventional CT units, and relatively easy to operate, said Dr. Dentomaxillofacial radiology teams may consequently choose to purchase one for themselves.

A single cone-beam CT scan can provide more detail than multiple conventional dental x-rays, according to Prof.

In countries where dentomaxillofacial radiology is not a specialty in its own right, general radiologists are picking up requests for dental CT and MRI.

Both modalities can produce high-quality images of the jaw and surrounding areas. Roberto Maroldi.

His team use cross-sectional imaging techniques to study the mandible and temporomandibular joint in patients with inflammatory diseases or tumours.

They are also increasingly being asked to look for inflammatory osteonecrosis in the jaw of patients taking biphosphonate drugs.

One month earlier, she had undergone phonatory prosthesis insertion for voice rehabilitation after total laryngectomy.

MRI shows retropharyngeal fluid collection black arrows reaching C6-C7 intervertebral disk. Note spondylodiscitis involving C6, C7 white arrowheads , and intervening vertebral disk with medullary compression long white arrows.

Provided by Prof. Young patient had noted rapidly progressive swelling of the palate that evolved in a midline ulceration without purulent discharge.

MRI of the lesion shows a peripheral rim of contrast enhancement surrounding a hypointense central portion arrows. Bone was not eroded.

Necrotising inflammatory process sialometaplasia involving minor salivary glands of the palate was suggested, and confi rmed by biopsy.

Maroldi Axial, sagittal and coronal views, derived from cone beam CT data 1 mm tomographic layers , show severe arthritis in right temporo-mandibular joint.

Switching to cone-beam CT for applications that would otherwise involve multiple x-rays could also be dose-saving. The 3D imaging technique can help practitioners to plan root canal treatment and to visualise the complex anatomy of cleft palate patients.

He also advocates The radiation dose associated with cone-beam CT is generally higher than a single x-ray exposure, but lower than a conventional CT study.

So many times we can make an examination that is lower in dose than had we used conventional radiography.

Images from cone beam CT data 1 mm tomographic layers show supernumerary teeth present distal to the clefts.

Volume-rendering allows the relationship between anatomic structures to be understood easily. Approximately half of these related to pathological conditions, and the remainder to visualising jaw anatomy prior to implant surgery.

Surgeons are increasingly likely to request a CT scan before inserting a dental implant, he said. Gahleitner Radiologists taking on dentomaxillofacial requests need to be prepared to discuss the pros and cons of different imaging options with their clinical colleagues, he said.

Answering a specific clinical problem may mean switching to an alternative technique. Canine teeth that remain beneath the palate can cause root resorption problems that need to be assessed before surgery.

Similarly, the proximity of lower third molars wisdom teeth to nearby nerves should be determined if tooth extraction is planned.

SF 5 It does not hurt! Biomedical imaging has the potential to change significantly clinical trial development and assessment, not just in radiology but in almost every medical specialty.

Andreas Jacobs, director of the department of neurology and director of the laboratory for gene therapy and molecular imaging in Cologne, Germany.

At present, European policy for biomedical imaging is highly fragmented, making it difficult for researchers in one country to have a clear idea of what their colleagues are doing in another.

Moreover, some of the advanced research is being conducted by biomedical engineers and physicists who do not ordinarily attend congresses and other educational events designed for the radiology community.

Leaders in the field realised the need for a multidisciplinary, multinational approach that brought together researchers, clinicians, healthcare policy makers, and industry.

It bundles all research-related EU initiatives together under a common entity, and plays a crucial role in reaching the goals of growth, competitiveness, and employment.

Although the scope of ER extends beyond molecular imaging, the presenters recognise the importance of the modality.

Multimodal imaging for the establishment of image-guided experimental treatment strategies. Visit the Free Publications booth on the 1st level Pick up your free copies of radiology journals and magazines Get free access to online radiology journals Log on beginning March 9 At DiagnosticImaging.

Vojtech Adalbert Alexander. Later, he founded the first radiological clinic and became its first professor at the University of Budapest.

He worked together with Bratislava native physicist Prof. Philip Eduard von Lenard, who won the Nobel Prize for physics in From to Slovak Radiology was part of Czechoslovak Radiology.

Since Slovak Radiology has been established as an independent organisation. There are three medical schools in Slovakia, from which around students of medicine graduate every year.

The radiological society is relatively small, and there are in the region of qualified radiologists working in the public sector and around preparing for specialisation.

There are also a small number of radiologists working in the private sector. The standard of radiological equipment in use is relatively good.

Serving 5. Royal Belgian Radiological Society There are effective mammographic programmes on a national level. In our society accepted the system of postgraduate education recommended by the EAR.

The complete curriculum was then translated and the process of practical implementation was started. For as long as 14 years the society has been organising regular educational courses.

In winter there is a regular week-long course called Winter Forum, for around radiologists, and in summer there is a Summer Forum for radiologists.

Sporting activities such as skiing and golf are a regular part of the programme. Radiologists from other European countries regularly take part in these events.

Many of these guests are members of the Czech Radiological Society, with which we cooperate very closely.

A national congress is held every two years, and every 4 years we organise a congress with international participation.

Our website address is www. The Royal Belgian Radiological Society was founded in and is one of the oldest radiological societies in Europe.

It is a society of medical doctors and physicists that aims to promote the study and dissemination of scientific knowledge directly or indirectly related to radiology.

The Society has 9 sections dedicated to the different subspecialties within radiology. Every year, a major symposium is organised by the president of the Society, while several smaller meetings are organised by the sections.

A bi-monthly, peer-reviewed journal, The Belgian Journal of Radiology, is distributed among the members.

Membership Corresponding membership: open to radiologists and training radiologists who have graduated from a Belgian University and have applied for membership to the Board of Directors.

Application should be supported by 2 full members of the Society. Full membership: open to radiologists and training radiologists who are corresponding members and who have performed and presented a scientific work with success.

Associate membership: open to non-radiologists interested in the activities of the Society. Associate members have no voting rights.

For more information on the RBRS: www. All data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned.

Therefore the Editorial Board, Editors and Contributing Writers and their respective employees accept no liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion or statement.

Advertising rates valid as per January With its remote control and memory function, the system can be moved quickly and precisely into the desired applications.

Orthopedic studies are performed with greater speed and precision than ever before. You have to determine when operating on a patient will not work because a cure is not possible or the patient to five years of prospective controlled trials using standardised protocols to get this information.

The technique is being applied clinically in about 60 academic medical centres throughout Europe, estimates Dr.

Christoph Stippich from the University of Heidelberg, Germany. The procedure has not yet become a standard diagnostic routine, however.

It is not widely used in smaller community hospitals, and because there are no medically approved software tools for the procedure, fMRI is performed largely in the framework of scientific trials.

A role for fMRI nevertheless is emerging to fill a void in the assessment of patients destined for brain surgery.

Although electroencephalography EEG and magnetoencephalography MEG do measure somatosensory or language function, the examinations are not easy to complete in a clinical setting, and data modelling is complicated, he said.

Only a few MEG centres exist worldwide, and they tend to be research centres that are not bound to hospitals. The fMRI technique, meanwhile, is highly robust and simple to perform.

As a result, fMRI is becoming the primary modality for investigating brain function, he added. Provided by Dr. All members and Fellows of the College are registered medical or dental practitioners.

The LMS enables the trainee radiologist to track his or her progress, which can also be monitored by the supervising trainer, and allows learning to be conducted at the pace of the learner or indeed enable the trainer to direct the trainee to specific topics or areas of study.

The College published its first Forward Plan in the summer of R-ITI complements, rather than replaces, the crucial learning in the clinical workplace.

The e-learning sessions effectively underpin the knowledge that trainees need to prepare for clinical practice and to reach the standards for entry into specialty practice.

R-ITI is now available to all UK training schemes, thus offering a consistent and comprehensive set of learning materials across the whole of radiology training in the UK.

Considerable interest has been expressed in using the programme outside the UK and discussions are in hand with other countries to support their training programmes.

Stippich Stippich believes, in fact, that there is no other option for visualising somatosensory and language functions. Although anatomical landmarks can help to identify the gyri in the brain that govern motor function, morphological imaging is difficult because there are only a few reliable landmarks.

Functional imaging therefore is a valuable adjunct. All this information you can assess very precisely using functional imaging. One of the clinical indications for fMRI is to help clinicians select the safest treatment approach for removing a brain tumour.

It will take another three Another possible indication is to determine the extent of surgery. Technique, protocols and stimulation equipment S.

Clinical applications of fMR imaging for intracranial tumors and epilepsy C. By measuring acute alterations in the segregation of neuronal functions and connectivity within the brain, fMRI is being used experimentally to assess brain function associated with a focal brain lesion, the process of reconnecting parallel neural processing networks during recovery, and the reorganisation of motor and language networks following rehabilitation.

In his ECR presentation, Bizzi will concentrate in particular on how fMRI shows reorganisation in specific anatomic networks, such as sensorimotor and language and spatial awareness, in patients who have had acute changes in brain structure and function as a result of a stroke and in those who have waxing and waning changes in plasticity because of multiple sclerosis.

The equipment only adapts all the premium functions of existing equipment, e. Goos-Suprema, DE 5 Dr. Expo A Ext.

Oedema-like bone marrow patterns generally are reflected by ill-defined increased signal changes on fluid-sensitive sequences such as short tau inversion recovery STIR or fat-suppressed T2-weighted sequences.

When part of the spectrum of the abnormalities is associated with a suspected disease in the vertebrae, bone mineral density changes should be classified by their distribution, shape, and relationship to other local or distant abnormalities, said Prof.

The presence of BMO changes may not even be clinically relevant. Signs of bone marrow oedema are often adjacent to obvious degenerative disc disease.

However, even incidental findings of BMO should drive further investigation if they suggest underlying infection, inflammation, or a fracture.

For example, BMO associated with a degenerative disc will have a band- like appearance next to the endplate and occur predominantly near the anterior corners of the vertebrae on both sides of the disc space.

On the other hand, BMO related to traumatic or osteoporotic vertebral factures will be linked with vertebral contour deformities and a normal marrow signal distant from the compressed endplate.

In infection, the BMO pattern will be present on both aspects of the disc space and in combination with interruption of the vertebral endplate, loss of height or an abnormal signal from the disc, as well as nearby paraspinal or epidural soft tissue alterations.

Distinguishing between necrosis, fracture, and oedema is especially difficult, Zanetti said.

In one case, a year-old woman with a painful hip had BMO-like changes in the femoral head and neck on coronal T1-weighted images on the left side and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images on the right side.

The images could be classified by radiologists as signs of the initial phase of femoral head necrosis based on the circumscribed low signal intensity on the T1-weighted image or as insufficiency fracture based on a subchondral linear abnormality in the femoral head.

BMO patterns typically are investigated with fluid-sensitive MRI techniques, as well as additional T1weighted sequences to look for linear signal abnormalities that indicate the presence of an initial stress fracture, he explained.

Although MRI is the procedure of choice for diagnosing the cause of BMO, other imaging modalities are sometimes useful.

When the differential diagnosis of degenerative disc disease and infectious spondylodiscitis is difficult to make on MRI, xrays and CT may reveal erosive and osteosclerotic changes that are typical for inflammatory disease in the thoracolumbar junction and in the sacroiliac joints.

These images demonstrate an osteoid osteoma. It is visible on CT with a characteristic nidus arrowhead , while on the MR examination only an uncharacteristic bone marrow oedema pattern is visible arrow.

Additional bone scintigraphy may be also used when osteoid osteoma is suspected or when a multilocalised condition e. Zanetti The MRI examination may be adapted to increase its sensitivity by incorporating gradient echo sequences or by injecting contrast material, which can reveal necrotic areas within the disc or soft tissue infection, detect subtle tumour foci in disseminated metastatic disease, Sagittal T1-weighted a and T2-weighted b images reveal bone marrow oedema located at anterior vertebral angles, adjacent to the TT12 disk space, highly suspect for inflammatory disease arrows.

Oblique coronal T1-weighted c and T2-weighted d images show evident bone marrow oedema adjacent to both sacro-iliac joints, making the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis certain arrowheads.

Coronal T1-weighted b of the pelvis shows evident additional foci, which confi rms multifocal metastatic disease arrowheads.

By Anagha P. The forum, which was established in , is alive and kicking! We survived a total makeover last year and are ready to meet new challenges in the recently created European Society of Radiology ESR.

Currently 36 countries are represented in the RTF. The Invest in Youth programme, sponsored so generously by the congress, has brought more than trainees to Vienna.

How are you enjoying it so far? The first day busy and overwhelming? Too many interesting sessions to choose from? We know the feeling, which is exactly why you should visit the RTF booth in the entrance hall for more information about our events and to meet other trainees!

These are two lectures arranged especially for trainees. Well, our excellent lecturers Dr. Hany and Prof. Dixon have promised to answer all your questions later today.

The lecture session will be followed by cocktails for trainees, in downtown Vienna. It is the perfect opportunity to enjoy drinks and food with trainees from all across Europe.

RTF activities from the past year will be presented and new projects launched. This year is especially exciting, as elections to a new RTF executive board are on the agenda.

It is always very entertaining as well as educational. The Radiology Trainees Forum is extremely pleased to see you here in Vienna.

Please do come by our booth in the entrance hall. Registration required. Please visit the RTF booth for information on location and to pick up your tickets.

The ESPR is proud to announce the launch of its brand new website www. On this site, you will find details of all of our forthcoming meetings and courses, as well as important links to our sister societies.

Also on the ESPR website, you can find a forum for discussion and details of various working groups organised under the auspices of the Society.

If you have an interest in paediatric radiology, we urge you to join us and to become an active member of our Society.

Despite increasing evidence for a decline in immune performance with advancing age in natural populations, it remains unclear how this translates to changes in actual parasite burdens.

Moreover, in populations where individuals may experience heterogeneous and even adverse environmental conditions, there is the potential for large variation in individual life-history trajectories.

We present analysis of gastrointestinal helminth faecal egg count FEC data collected over 20 years from a free-living population of Soay sheep, with the aim of investigating the impact of ageing and environmental conditions on parasite resistance.

Finally, we show that these factors interact, such that individuals that have experienced adverse and stressful conditions show an accelerated age-specific increase in FEC when compared to individuals that have experienced favourable conditions.

Chronological age is thus associated with a decline in parasite resistance, but heterogeneity in experience of 54 environmental conditions and stressors seems an important source of variation in changes in parasite resistance across the host life-history.

S68 Effects of temporal environmental variation on host-parasite dynamics in the Paramecium caudatum - Holospora undulata system Alison B.

It is important to understand how such variation affects epidemiological dynamics in host-parasite systems. We explored effects of temporal variation in temperature on experimental populations of the ciliate Paramecium caudatum and its bacterial parasite Holospora undulata.

Infected and uninfected populations of 2 P. Variable conditions caused greater declines in host populations at higher temperatures.

This effect was disproportionate for host clone VEN, especially for infected populations. Variable conditions were also detrimental for the parasite causing greater declines in levels of infection.

These results highlight how variable conditions can impact persistence of both host and parasite populations. They also demonstrate that sign and rates of population decline can depend on host genotype and parasite infection.

A, 7eme Etage, CC 7 quai St. Extensions of this approach are necessary to understand the potential for interaction between different parasite strains within the same host: often they will feel each other's presence only via their effect of the immune system.

The approach also has highlighted the importance of a few neglected questions: modellers typically make the assumption that infections are chronic or acute depending on the disease they want to model but this aspect should actually be an outcome predicted by theory.

In particular, embedded models tend to predict chronic infections: the mechanisms that permit an immune system to eradicate an infection are poorly understood.

Many embedded models are inspired by models for predator-prey interactions but it is worthwhile to point out that models for parasite-immune system interactions be interesting for ecologists.

Long , Alexia T. Karanikas, Eric T. Harvill, Andrew F. Despite over fifty years of population-wide vaccination, whooping cough is re-emerging in highly vaccinated populations.

Although Bordetella pertussis is regarded as the major causative agent of human whooping cough, B. The widely-used acellular whooping cough vaccines aP are composed exclusively of B.

Using a rodent model of infection, we show that aP vaccination helped to clear B. We show that such vaccine-mediated facilitation of B. Rather, aP vaccination, by reducing lung inflammatory responses measured by cytokine responsiveness in the lung and lung neutrophil recruitment, delayed B.

Our data raise the possibility that aP vaccination can create hosts that are more susceptible to B. Karen J. Fairlie-Clarke, Tracey J.

To determine the relative strength of cross-reactive versus antigen-specific responses, in co-infected mice, we used ELISA to calculate antibody titre from a serial dilution of serum.

We further examined whether cross-reactive responses were targeted toward carbohydrate or protein moieties by treating the parasite antigens with periodate, thus disrupting carbohydrate epitopes by oxidising carbohydrates to aldehydes.

Periodate treatment affected both antigen-specific and cross-reactive responses. For example, if the antigenic distance between two parasites is small the immune system may not perceive them as different and crossreactivity would result.

Maintaining some degree of polyclonality may confer a broader spectrum of protection raising the interesting question of whether production of cross-reactive antibodies might be the optimal response for a host faced with infection by an unpredictable range of parasites.

Here we demonstrate the application of such an approach to generate meaningful immunological profiles for wild mammals.

We sampled a field vole population across a full annual cycle and developed a battery of cellular assays in which functionally different pro- and anti-inflammatory signalling responses transcription factor and cytokine mRNAs were activated and quantified by Q-PCR.

Temporal trends and infection status accounted for a significant proportion of the observed variation in immunological expression.

There were highly significant annual and non-annual temporal immunological trends and systematic differences in the immunological status of animals occurred between equivalent points in the annual cycle Winter and Pinpointing the causes and consequences of such non-seasonal temporal variability may help identify underlying environmental drivers of individual fitness and demographic fluctuation.

However, the majority of such studies focus on wellnourished individuals that are under limited environmental stresses, often infected with only a single experimental pathogen at a time, and are therefore not ecologically valid.

The relatively few studies that have concentrated on natural populations have largely focussed solely on the genetics of the major histocompatibility complex; there is therefore a need to expand research away from the MHC to other immune genes and away from laboratory to natural populations.

Our work has addressed both of these issues by examining the genetic diversity of cytokine genes, key regulators of the immune response, within a well-studied natural population of field voles Microtus agrestis in Kielder Forest, UK.

We used population genetic methods to identify a signature of natural selection acting on several of these genes and then demonstrated that this genetic diversity can lead to phenotypic effects, such as variation in gene expression levels and parasite resistance between individuals.

We conclude that immunogenetic diversity in the vole population is widespread and that host-parasite interactions provide a possible mechanism for its maintenance.

Hanna1, G. Brennan2, D. Sammin3, S. McConnell1, F. Forster1, H. Edgar1, D. Moffett1, M. McConville2, E.

Certain well-defined histological changes are recognisable in the reproductive structures of TCBZsensitive flukes following recent TCBZ treatment of the host.

Hence histopathological methods can be used to investigate TCBZ resistance status in field cases of fasciolosis. Amongst the changes seen in TCBZ-sensitive flukes exposed to metabolites of TCBZ in treated sheep, the development of apoptotic-like bodies in testes, vitelline follicles and ovary predominates.

The cells mainly affected are those undergoing mitosis or meiosis. The occurrence of apoptosis in this situation has been verified by the use of a commercially available kit for immunocytochemical localization of apoptotic cell death.

The method, which relies on recognition of DNA cleavage fragments generated by endonuclease following a trigger event, could improve sensitivity and facilitate quantification of histopathological analysis in the investigation of TCBZ resistance.

Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma bovis are blood trematodes that cause diseases in human and ruminant hosts, respectively.

Echinostoma caproni is an intestinal trematode that mainly affects mammals and birds and is used as a model to study helminthiasis.

Sera from S. Our results show that there is differential protein expression between the three species. Furthremore we demonstrated that as expected, the antigen recognition profiles differed between sera from animals infected with S.

Interestingly, we also demostrated that there were some commonly recognised antigens. The relevance of our findings of both differentially expressed proteins and common antigens are discussed in relation to phylogenetic studies, diagnostic tests and vaccine development.

During chronic infection, humans are exposed to several different schistosome lifecycle stages. One hypothesis for the slow development of protective immunity is that exposure to dying longlived adult worms is needed to stimulate a protective response.

Another hypothesis is that a threshold level of antigen must be experienced before a protective response is initiated.

Mathematical models were used to investigate the importance of different parasite lifecycle stages in stimulating antibody responses, and to assess the impact of an antigen threshold.

Model outputs were compared with Schistosoma haematobium field data from Zimbabwe. Results from deterministic models describing mean levels of infection and antibody in homogeneously exposed populations indicated that protective antibody responses stimulated by dying adult worms can reproduce age-infection and age-antibody profiles consistent with field data, but that other lifestages could also be the principal source of protective antigen.

Stochastic individual-based models, which permit heterogeneous exposure, allow us to determine whether these mechanisms can additionally explain observed infection and antibody distributions.

Identifying the mechanisms underlying the development of protective immunity is important for understanding how mass chemotherapy programmes may impact the development of natural immunity, with consequent effects on infection.

Data from experimental models suggest that immunity is also influenced by regulatory T cells Treg , but as yet studies on Treg in human schistosome infections are limited.

We therefore characterized regulatory and 58 activated T cell Tact populations in Zimbabweans aged years exposed to Schistosoma haematobium parasites.

Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between Treg:Tact ratio and infection intensity. The strongest correlation occurred in the youngest age groups in whom infection was rising and peaking, but the association was lost in the older age group with declining infection levels.

We here describe a completely different mechanism of immune modulation where host lipoproteins serve as transporters of schistosome antigens.

Like many schistosome proteins, these antigens are glycosylated with schistosome specific glycoproteins. As a result of transfer of schistosome antigens to host lipoproteins, circulating antibodies against schistosome antigens will indirectly bind to these lipoproteins.

We have demonstrated the presence of IgG on low-density lipoprotein particles from serum from infected individuals, whereas no antibodies were found on lipoproteins of healthy controls.

Subsequently, these antibody-opsonised lipoproteins are phagocytosed by immune cells carrying an Fc-receptor.

Indeed, accumulation of lipids within several types of blood derived immune cells occurred in infected individuals only. In vitro, this lipid accumulation was associated with apoptosis and reduced viability of neutrophils.

The consequences of these lipoprotein binding antibodies for immune cells and for the anti-helminth host response will be discussed.

S79 Eosinophil degranulation against adult Onchocerca ochengi during macrofilaricidal chemotherapy is dependent on depletion of Wolbachia Rowena D.

Hansen1, Germanus S. Bah2, Udo Hetzel1, Vincent N. Tanya2, Alexander J. The basis of the symbiotic relationship between filariae and their Wolbachia endosymbionts is thought to be metabolic, but a role for Wolbachia in defence against immune attack has received little attention.

Neutrophils are attracted to Wolbachia but they are replaced by eosinophils following antibiotic chemotherapy, which degranulate on the worm cuticle.

However, it is not clear whether the eosinophils are involved in killing the filariae or if they are attracted secondarily to dying worms.

In this study, cattle infected with O. In contrast to oxytetracycline, melarsomine had no significant effect on the viability of Wolbachia.

Eosinophil infiltration and degranulation increased significantly only in the oxytetracycline group; whereas nodular gene expression of the chemokine interleukin-8 was lowest in this group.

Moreover, in the early time-points, intense eosinophil degranulation was associated with worm vitality, not degeneration.

These data are consistent with a role for eosinophils in antibiotic-mediated killing, and suggest that Wolbachia prevents a local eosinophilia by recruiting neutrophils.

This shapes the way we think about age profiles of infection, distributions of parasites among hosts, and mechanisms regulating parasite populations.

Many large-scale chemotherapy-based programmes are now in place which aim at controlling infection, reducing morbidity, and eliminating infection where deemed possible.

Depending on whether anthelmintics are mass administered or targeted at particular age- or occupational groups, age-infection profiles will be modified; immune responses will be affected; prevalence vs.

Additionally, we need to monitor for changes in drug efficacy and develop novel assays for detection of active infection and exposure as the sensitivity of parasitological indicators decreases, programmes approach transmission breakpoints, and tools are required to ascertain when to stop.

We need to understand how the parasite population biology paradigm is changing if we aim at supporting parasite control efforts effectively.

S81 Porcine parasites in Northern Ireland: incidence, distribution and correlation with management and control strategies J.

Black1, J. Marks1, A. Endoparasitic worms inflict a huge economic burden on pig production through reduced growth, poor feed conversion efficiencies and higher medication costs.

As yet, anthelmintic resistance has not been reported in swine herds in the UK or Ireland. However, benzimidazole and levamisole resistant nematodes have been identified from herds in Germany concurring with the situation in other nematode parasites of sheep and cattle where multi-drug resistance is rife.

The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and distribution of helminth parasites in pig units across Northern Ireland N. Other species identified included: Hyostrongylus rubidis, Oesophagostumum dentatum, Metastrongylus apri, Trichuris suis and Fasciola hepatica.

These findings indicate that despite good husbandry practice, high-levels of worms are commonplace on most pig units in N.

Echinococcus granulosus is a dog tapeworm that causes the zoonotic disease, cystic echinococcosis.

Canine echinococcosis appears to have re-emerged in Powys, Wales following a control programme in the s Buishi et al. The Office of the Chief Veterinary Officer and 60 the Department for Public Health and Health Professions in the Welsh Assembly Government jointly funded a pilot dog worming campaign as a preventative public health measure.

To evaluate the impact and efficiency of a short-term supervised dog dosing scheme, collection of faecal samples on farm visits and worming of dogs with praziquantel commenced in South Powys in May In Year 1, approximately canid faecal samples were collected from registered farms and delivered to the University of Salford to be tested.

In total faecal samples were tested by coproELISA, of these samples were collected at baseline and were found to have a coproantigen prevalence of A total of samples tested after 3 treatments gave a coproantigen prevalence of 0.

The study will continue to compare the coproantigen prevalence over one year after cessation of dosing. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors nAChRs are significant drug targets for parasitic nematodes, and several sub-types of these receptors are present on body wall muscle.

We recently identified a novel nAChR subunit gene, acr, from Ascaris suum. A survey of parasitic nematodes, using a combination of sequence data and primary material, demonstrates that acr is conserved in several parasitic species from clades III and V, including Brugia malayi, Haemonchus contortus and Dirofilaria immitis.

To date however, no evidence has been found of acr in any free-living or plant parasitic nematode. A specific antibody against the Asu-ACR subunit was produced; immunocytochemistry on native tissue showed that the subunit was expressed in the head muscle of A.

Sequence similarities with other nAChRs and computer modelling predicted that ACR was capable of forming a homomeric channel.

In vitro expression of ACR in the Xenopus oocyte expression system confirmed this prediction and showed that the receptor responded to both acetylcholine and nicotine, but was not sensitive to levamisole.

The pharmacology and function of this new receptor are being investigated further. S84 Vaccination of rats against fasciolosis by a multivalent vaccine of stage-specific cathepsin proteases induces significant protection Ramamoorthi Jayaraj1, David Piedrafita2, Kemperley Dynon2, Rudi Grams3, Terry W.

Fasciola hepatica produces cathepsin B and cathepsin L in their excretory-secretory material. These proteases are proposed to be key virulence factors for parasite infection and are targets for vaccination.

Cathepsin B isoforms are predominantly released in the juvenile life cycle stage while different cathepsin L isoforms are released throughout the cycle.

Three proteases cathepsin L5, cathepsin L1g and cathepsin B1 were expressed using cDNAs isolated from adult, metacercariae and juvenile flukes, respectively.

Each was used singly or in combination to vaccinate rats that were challenged with F. All vaccinated groups yielded significantly fewer and smaller flukes than the control group, suggesting vaccination retarded liver fluke development.

Kimber, Chuanzhe Song, Jack M. Gallup, Tim A. Bartholomay Departments of Biomedical Sciences and Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA USA Diseases caused by parasitic nematodes perpetuate socioeconomic instability in developing countries by inflicting crippling morbidity and significant mortality.

One reason for the persistence of these diseases is an inadequate portfolio of effective drugs; new, more effective compounds are needed.

A major obstacle to their development is the lack of available tools to validate potential novel drug targets in parasitic nematodes.

RNA Interference RNAi is a tool that allows researchers to suppress genes of interest in experimental organisms or tissues and has become standard for target validation in drug development but a reliable and reproducible protocol for parasitic nematodes has yet to be established.

Here we describe an innovative RNAi strategy to study gene function and validate drug targets in parasitic nematodes. Our approach uses the filarial nematode Brugia malayi as a model and targets developmental stages of this parasite whilst still in the mosquito host.

We can profoundly suppress expression of a cathepsin-L-like gene using both short interfering RNA and long double stranded RNA injected directly into infected mosquitoes.

Cathepsin L-like suppression elicits aberrant worm phenotypes with motility defects and reduced transmission potential. Finally we present evidence that other genes are susceptible to this approach.

Since completion of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome sequence the generation of genomic and transcriptomic datasets for nematode parasites has evolved relatively slowly.

More recent advances in power sequencing have fuelled a significant expansion in transcriptomic datasets and publication of the first genome sequences for nematode parasites.

An additional stimulus has been the discovery of RNA interference RNAi and its potential to allow gene function or, drug target validation studies in organisms previously refractory to reverse genetic manipulation.

Aiming to decipher the functional context of these sequence data, parasitologists have attempted to adapt RNAi for use in parasitic nematodes.

While progress has been significant in plant parasites, gene silencing in animal-parasitic nematodes has floundered under the difficulties associated with triggering robust transcript knockdown.

To test this we used 77 C. Although preliminary screens indicate that most proteins are reasonably well conserved, notable omissions include proteins responsible for RNAi uptake and spreading.

Warnock, N. Marks, A. RNA interference RNAi provides a reverse genetics platform which facilitates investigations into gene function, providing opportunities for drug target identification and validation.

However, despite initially encouraging results from the scientific community working on animal parasitic nematodes APNs , recent experimentation has revealed that the RNAi response is not robust across all APN species.

Our approach includes the examination of 9 gene transcript targets whose selection was based on transcript abundance, localisation neuronal, gut, reproductive or global tissue expression and previous success in other APN-RNAi experiments.

DsRNAs were delivered to the infective stage of A. Our results indicate variable susceptibility of the targets; no trend was observed between transcript abundance or localisation and susceptibility.

In parasitic nematodes RNAi has proven to be less effective. We have carried out a detailed RNAi study in the sheep gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus to examine why some genes seem to be more susceptible to RNAi silencing than other genes.

We have obtained specific and reproducible silencing for several genes including the H. Silencing of H11 transcript can be achieved following soaking of L3 infective stage larvae in dsRNA for 24 hours.

Larvae are viable after this treatment with no detrimental effects observed in vitro. To examine any in vivo effects of H11 silencing, sheep were infected with larvae pre-treated with dsRNA to H11 or to a control C.

This is the first demonstration of an in vivo effect following gene silencing in an animal parasitic nematode.

This study reveals that putative Meloidogyne incognita orthologues of Caenorhabditis elegans cillial motor proteins, Mi-che-3 and Mi-osm-3, perform functionally comparable roles in the amphids, the main nematode chemosensory organs.

We demonstrate that transcript knockdown by RNAi can recapitulate the aberrant response to chemotactic gradients characteristic of the respective C.

Our sensory assays indicate that knockdown of either transcript using short interfering si RNAs, inhibits the normal attraction and repulsion responses of M.

In addition, we find that the neuropeptide encoding Mi-flp, which is involved in the social feeding phenotype of C.

This work demonstrates that RNAi can recapitulate null-phenotypes of functionally conserved amphid proteins in the root knot nematode M.

Cameron, A. Mousley, N. With control relying heavy on triclabendazole, resistance is well established and highlights the need for novel control options.

Within the genus Fasciola there are at least eighteen sub-types of FheCL which show remarkable sequence conservation. Structural and bioinformatic studies along with the identification of enzyme specificity have allowed the division of multiple cathepsin Ls into sub-categories designated clades; these appear to have distinct functional roles.

Promiscuous siRNAs have been designed to silence multiple clades simultaneously, whereas the selective siRNAs are clade specific.

In addition to qPCR, the impact of silencing on phenotype has been examined. The preliminary data highlight variation in silencing susceptibilities and efficiencies and demonstrate the need to optimize individual siRNAs prior to functional assessments.

Stevenson1, J. Dalzell1, C. Until recently, carbamate and organophosphate-based nematicides have been used to control plant parasitic nematodes, but have been withdrawn due to environmental concerns.

In an effort to investigate if the RNAi-susceptibility of potato cyst nematode gene transcripts is tissuedependent, we set out to knockdown G.

Initially, genes expressed exclusively in neuronal cells of the head ganglia Gp-ace-2 encoding acetylcholinesterase or in the subventral oesophageal gland cells Gp-cell-1 and Gpcm-1 encoding B-1, 4 endoglucanase [cellulase] and chorismate mutase, respectively.

The end goal will be to breed plants expressing nematode-specific dsRNA or siRNAs in planta which will be resistant to parasitic nematode infestation.

Our aim is to assess whether ivermectin sensitivity in this strain can be restored by expressing GluCl subunit cDNA from Haemonchus contortus, a parasitic 64 nematode from the same clade as C.

We have used particle bombardment to create transgenic C. Dose response curves for ivermectin were comparable between the Hco-avrB strain and an avr; glc-1 mutant, indicating that the H.

In contrast, the triple mutant containing Hco-avrA cDNA did not show any rescue of ivermectin sensitivity Our data using C.

Furthermore, we show that C. Marks1, Michael J. Kimber2, Tim A. Day2, Betty A. Eipper3, Richard E.

In vertebrates, PHM and PAL are expressed as separate domains of the bifunctional protein peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase PAM , while a number of invertebrates display various different arrangements of monofunctional enzymes.

In situ hybridization demonstrated that in adult schistosomes, SmPAL mRNA Sm-pal-1 is expressed in the central nervous system, consistent with its role in the amidation of neuropeptides in S.

Heterologous expression showed that SmPAL is a catalytically active, efficiently secreted amidating enzyme, with functional characteristics analogous to other eukaryotic amidating enzymes.

Nevertheless, the fundamental role of SmPAL in neuropeptide maturation, and structural differences from the host enzyme, make it appealing as a drug target candidate.

Kimber2, Nikki J. Marks1, Tim A. Published studies in S. Here we aimed to investigate whether RNAi could be triggered in deeper tissues, by performing a small-scale RNAi screen of six neurone-specific gene transcripts identified from the S.

Using electroporation-mediated delivery of bp dsRNA to in-vitro schistosomules, and assaying subsequent transcript knockdown by semi-quantitative real-time PCR, we achieved specific transcript knockdown with all of our targets, although the degree of knockdown varied markedly between genes.

Although these experiments are ongoing, our conclusion at this stage is that our target genes are refractory to phenotypic analysis, due either to functional redundancy, or insufficient ablation of transcript level.

Short amidated neuropeptides, FMRFamide-like peptides FLPs , are distributed abundantly throughout the nervous system of every flatworm examined and they produce potent myoexcitation.

Our goal here was to determine the mechanism by which FLPs elicit contractions of schistosome muscle fibers.

Now working at Anhui Institute of Parasitic Diseases Schistosoma japonicum remains highly endemic in China and has recently re-emerged in previously controlled regions.

To investigate the potential role for any animals other than humans and bovines in the transmission, longitudinal investigation of S.

The highest prevalence and infection intensity were observed in rodents in the hilly region and in the cattle in the marshland.

A late afternoon shedding pattern was observed in the hilly and a morning-afternoon dual shedding pattern within the marshland.

Characterisation of the parasite population genetic diversity also indicated cattle to be the main definitive host reservoir species in the marshland, which was further confirmed by sibling relationship analyses.

In the hilly region, however, in addition to the role of rodents as the main reservoirs to maintain the disease, dogs, with their higher mobility, may also play a significant role in S.

The implications of these results, in terms of parasite strain sub-structuring and targeted disease control, were discussed.

Deberiotstraat 32, B Leuven, Belgium. Schistosome flukes cause significant disease in humans and ruminants in tropical and sub-tropical regions.

The two host-life cycle with a sexual stage within the mammalian host facilitates inter species interactions. Hybridization between schistosome species can occur but in most cases host specificity and ecology are thought to maintain species barriers.

Here we report on the emergence of new hybrid strains of schistosomes found in Senegalese children and cattle resulting from introgressive hybridization between ruminant and human parasites.

This situation has arisen due to the increasing close contact of livestock and people potentially brought about by water development projects and the spread of appropriate intermediate snail hosts.

Our findings have come to light due to optimized sampling and genotyping techniques of individual schistosome larval stages enabling multi loci molecular analyses of parasites directly from the field.

Gene exchange following hybridization can lead to phenotypic innovations that can ultimately lead to changes in disease epidemiology.

Understanding the biology and interactions of these dioecious parasites is essential for developing strategies for schistosomiasis control in West Africa.

Emphasis has been given to the existence of a strong regulatory network in response to high and prolonged exposure to helminth parasites.

We investigated the influence of. The prevalence of atopic reactions was Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between infection intensity and the allergen specific IgE.

These results indicate that skin sensitivity to common aeroallergens may be suppressed in S. Interestingly, no correlation was observed between the skin prick results and the allergen-specific IgE suggesting that regulation might occur at the effector interface of immune responses.

A vaccine against schistosomiasis remains an unfulfilled goal. A concept we are investigating is to target immune responses at poorly immunogenic molecules during normal infection.

Antibodies which neutralize this enzyme might abort the infection at an early stage and our hypothesis is that such antibodies may be induced if Sm-CE is in an inactivated, but properly-folded form.

We are currently trying to express the His-tagged recombinant protein in a correct native secondary structure.

Attempts will be made to inactivate the enzymatic activity of the rSm-CE-Fc by site-directed mutagenesis of the active site serine S Experiments are underway to test whether either of the recombinant products, rSmCE-His and rSm-CE-Fc, induce protective immunity against schistosome challenge in mice.

S Development and validation of a quantitative, high-throughput, fluorescent-based bioassay to detect Schistosoma viability E. Peak, I.

Human schistosomiasis is currently reliant on the use of one drug Praziquantal for its global control.

Resistance to this drug has the potential to remove our ability to treat this neglected tropical disease and so lends urgency to the search for novel drugs and drug targets.

Current methods for detecting schistosome viability rely on qualitative microscopic criteria, which require an understanding of parasite morphology, and most importantly, can be subjectively interpreted.

These methods are unsuitable for high-throughput functional genomics- or drug based- screens currently required by the schistosome community to accelerate discovery of novel chemotherapeutics.

Here we present a quantitative microtiter-based method for objectively detecting schistosomula viability that takes advantage of the differential uptake of fluorophores by living organisms.

Sektionsleitung, zusammen mit PD Dr. Historicizing the Ocean, c. Her Ph. Hossain, M. Ballantyne Zweitgutachter.

Forerunner and Traditionalist Zweitgutachter. Stegbauer, Christina: Gender on Horseback. Andreas, Saskia: Land of My Mothers? Blum, Barbara: Truth or Tudor Propaganda?

The official site of Dr. Barney Glaser and Classic Grounded Theory. Led by Dr. Markko Hamalainen, Dr. Alvita Nathaniel, and Dr.

Michael K. For further information contact Markko at: HamalainenM darden. For further information or an application contact Ulrika at ulrika.

For further information, contact Dr. Scott helen groundedtheoryonline. Helen Scott and Dr. Andy Lowe. For further information contact Gonzalo Jimenez Seminario at gjimenez proteus.

See Seminars for further information on all the upcoming seminars. Barney Glaser's now world famous troubleshooting seminars are designed for PhD candidates to trouble shoot exactly their next question with regard to doing their GT dissertation.

The goal is to get candidates closer to finishing the PhD dissertation, by troubleshooting their current GT problem s and listening to other student's current GT problems in an open, supportive and noncompetitive discussion.

Seminars cover the many GT issues candidates face in completing their PhD dissertation. All students will learn from each other, and receive invaluable help.

The book is about the origins and growth of grounded theory GT as developed and written by Barney G. It is not written to compete or compare with other QDA methods.

The competition with other perspectives is up to the reader to write up, if he so desires. My goal in this paper is to write up the GT perspective clearly and historically to date so it can be used by others in research and the rhetorical wrestle between different perspectives.

As GT spreads throughout the world a clear view of the GT perspective is constantly needed and requested from me by researchers for doing GT and for trying to explain the method to others, particularly supervisors and peer reviewers.

One of the precious properties of classical grounded theory GT is the autonomy it gives the researcher. A response to a cry for help from a novice GT researcher can take away his autonomy It can be a strong answer by a strong senior researcher that undermines the merging theory of the novice.

The novice must be careful not to yield or give away his power of autonomy for a need for help as desperate as he may feel the need.

This book deals with this issue of losing and of preserving autonomy and many related issues. This book deals simply with choosing classic grounded theory CGT as the methodology to use mainly for doing the dissertation.

CGT stands alone as a separate method not as a competitive method in conflict and controversy with all the QDA qualitative data analysis methods jargonized as a type of GT.

This reader provides a myriad of CGT properties to consider in choosing it as the method to use. There will be no competitive arguments with other methods offered here.

It is designed to have CGT chosen on its merits for the user, not better or worse. It can be pre-ordered by going to.

Grounded Theory Review is now an open access journal! Are you undertaking a classic grounded theory study, but have no one to mentor you?

She can connect you with a Grounded Theory Institute Fellow who can offer you tailored support. This anthology brings together a collection of articles on classic grounded theory organized around the concept of mentoring the method.

With 19 contributors, most of whom have studied with Barney Glaser; the book is a wonderful tribute to both the man and the method.

It does a great job of explaining the roots of GT exploring the life, philosophies and influences on Barney Glaser , correcting some misunderstanding about the method, and looking at advances in the method.

It is useful to both the novice and the experienced researcher. He talks about the literature review, grounded theory as a jargon, high impact variables, conceptualization, and more.

FloraFaunaAltoAdige www. Il portale fornisce i dati sulla distribuzione dei gruppi di piante o animali selezionati e le schede informative sulle singole specie.

FloraFaunaAltoAdige si rivolge a tutte le persone che si occupano di flora e fauna dell'Alto Adige, in egual misura sia a specialisti che persone interessate.

Fin dalla sua fondazione nel , il Museo di Scienze Naturali dell'Alto Adige si pone come il centro di documentazione di riferimento per la flora e la fauna della regione.

Il portale vuole spronare la collaborazione nella rilevazione dei dati e rafforzare la comunicazione tra i conservatori del museo, in quanto gestori del portale, e gli esperti esterni, ma anche con le persone comuni che sono semplicemente interessate all'argomento.

Per richieste di contatto, domande e proposte su FloraFaunaAltoAdige scrivere a: florafauna naturmuseum.

L'utilizzo di FloraFaunaAltoAdige prevede che si accettino le condizioni elencate di seguito:. Per i dati estratti in generale e gli output mappe ed elenco delle specie : FloraFaunaAltoAdige.

Il portale sulla distribuzione delle specie animali e vegetali in Alto Adige. Per il progetto: Wilhalm T. Kranebitter P. Gredleriana Per i lavori scientifici devono essere citate le pubblicazioni elettroniche sui diversi gruppi di organismi.

Per la ricerca di singole specie animali e vegetali sono disponibili due diverse funzioni. Dato che tutte le specie di un genere segnalate in Alto Adige vengono elencate, FloraFaunaAltoAdige assolve anche alla funzione di catalogo delle specie checklist.

La mappa di localizzazione, invece, indica i luoghi dell'avvistamento di una specie se si dispone delle coordinate il punto esatto o uno dei luoghi di riferimento nelle vicinanze.

FloraFaunaAltoAdige utilizza tre indicazioni di stato vedi il simbolo relativo , che nella flora e fauna talvolta sono utilizzati diversamente:.

La maggioranza dei dati proviene comunque dalla cartografia floristica in corso. La definizione tassonomia delle specie rappresentate si basa essenzialmente su Fischer M.

Adler W. La nomenclatura segue Wilhalm et al. Niklfeld H. Aellen P. In: Hegi G. Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa, 2. Albers F. Haussknechtia, 7: Argenti C.

Lasen C. Rovereto, Sez. Arietti N. Dalla scoperta alla ricostruzione dell'areale. Natura Bresciana, Bachmann S.

Becherer A. Bauhinia, 5 3 : Bauhinia, 5 4 : Bojko H. Eine neue Sippe aus den Dolomiten. Bolzon P. Nota IV. Nuovo Giorn. Nota VIII. Nota X.

Bona E. Museo Civico Rovereto. Bosin B. Der Schlern, Bottega S. Boraginaceae in Italia. Revisione biosistematica.

Webbia, Braun-Blanquet J. Von der Provence bis zur Steiermark. Fischer, Stuttgart. Dalla Torre K. Innsbruck, Damboldt J.

Desfayes M. Dunkel F. Gredleriana, 5 : Favarger C. Festi F. Studi Trentini Scienze Naturali, Atti Acc.

Agiati, Fill J. Florineth F. Gottschlich G. Gregor T. Rollik J. Greimler J. Hermanowski B. Guiggi A. Lobivia silvestrii Riv.

Rowley Cactaceae nell'Italia settentrionale: aspetti tassonomici, biologici e corologici. Atti Soc. Museo civ. Milano, Hand R.

Hessen, Beiheft 9. Handel-Mazzetti H. Regni Veget. C, Schlern-Schriften, Wien, Hauser M. Hellrigl K. Hellweger M.

Studi Trentini, 8: Heubl G. Heydebrand E. Hilpold A. In: Hilpold A. Gredleriana, 5: Hintner C. Forstwirtschaft, Bozen. Phyton Austria , Horn K.

Sackwitz P. Feddes Repertorium, Rundbriefe, Jang C. Linnean Soc. Kalela A. Kiem J. Tageszeitung Dolomiten vom Tageszeitung Dolomiten vom 7.

Kierdorf-Traut G. Kunz H. Phyton Austria , 2: Leonhardt R. Zeitschrift, Lippert W. Lorenz K.

Wuppertal, Luzzatto G. Milano, 67 1 : Machule M. Der Schlern, , , , , ; , , , , ; , , , Melzer A. Manuskript Biolog.

Labor, Leifers. Melzer H. Carinthia II, Milde J. Steiermark, Floristische Arbeitsgemeinschaft, Gredleriana, 2: Pagitz K. Verein Innsbruck, Gredleriana, Pedrotti F.

Studi Trentini di scienze Naturali — Acta Biologica, Studi Trentini Sc. Agiati, 6: Perazza G.

Rovereto, 10 : Pignatti S. Il gruppo di Ranunculus auricomus L. Pils G. Linzer biol. Sagorski E. Schippmann U.

Boissiera, Schroeder F. Senoner S. Diplomarbeit Univ. Soest J. Soldano A. Oenothera, in Italia Onagraceae. Brescia, Spitaler R.

Szelag Z. Teppner H. Phyton Horn, Austria , Gredleriana, 9: Wien, B, Wallossek C.

Christiane MГјnster Video

Christiane MГјnster - Publications

La tassonomia e la nomenclatura delle specie trattate seguono Mitchell-Jones A. All that is required of you is, to assure Warning: Bad arguments to join implode in length it was settled that their original design of leaving Netherfield These statistics were produced by getstats father! Athesia, Bozen. Linnean Soc. Gymnasiums Bozen, Studi Trentini Sc. Perazza G.

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